Expression of the disease on female carriers of X-linked lysosomal disorders: a brief review. For example, in the Pickles et al. Genetic analysis of sex-influenced traits Most analytical models for sex-influenced traits assume an additive sex effect by treating it as a covariate in models or adjusting it preliminarily Fig.
In both cases, the female phenotype is less severe, as she has some normal cells that carry out the essential function. External link.
Adv Genet 33 : — The genetic locus is silenced when it is transmitted by a mother and is switched on when transmitted by a father. A nongenetic explanation for male vulnerability, such as exposure to prenatal androgens, is unlikely for a variety of reasons.
Sign in to annotate. See Article History. Click For The Answer! Medical browser? W chromosomes in female chickens are entirely analogous to Y chromosomes in men in that they are sex-limited and do not re-combine when males and females reproduce, as the other regions of the genome do.
Read More on This Topic. Other examples of diseases linked to mutations in genes on the X chromosome are Duchenne muscular dystrophy and fragile-X syndrome.
False positive and negative associations may be reduced accordingly. Polygenic effects of Y chromosome should be independently included in analytical model only for phenotypes of men because of its absence in women and thus absent genetic correlation between women and men. Get a printable copy PDF file of the complete article 1.
Jolliffe T, Baron-Cohen S Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the embedded figures task?. These data suggest that the actions of the locus may not be to increase liability to autism as such but rather to increase male vulnerability to social communication impairments in a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, which preferentially affect males.
World Health Organization , Geneva.