A spermatid chromatin mass is present in the bottom right of the prometaphase image. The obvious sex differences in reproductive physiology; females ovulate on a periodic and regular basis, get pregnant, deliver, and lactate, and males do not, necessitate that the brain regions regulating these diverse profiles be different.
Sex matters in meiosis. Karyosome formation therefore correlates with a decrease in global transcriptional activity. Centriole based microtubule asters are first detectable in late karyosome spermatocytes and extend throughout the cell by the end of diakinesis as centrosomes separated to opposite sides of the nuclear envelope Figure 3B.
So there is a lot more to it than than just xy…… I summise that other genes switch the sry gene on…. What if you were born with a penis and have a XX chromosome? Megabase chromatin domains involved in DNA double-strand breaks in vivo.
Both males and females develop when eggs are incubated at temperatures ranging between those that induce only single-sex development. Google Scholar.
In syp-1 me17 hermaphrodites, AIR-2 was undetectable in oocytes at the pachytene and diakinesis stages  Figure 5D oocyte and data not shown. While previous studies suggest the lack of a DNA damage checkpoint during spermatogenesis shortens the pachytene period our studies reveal sperm-specific components and instances of overlapping developmental sub-programs that could potentially speed meiotic progression.
Both types of cells arise from meiosis, a multi-step program during which chromosomes replicate, pair and recombine, then divide to generate haploid gametes. Curr Biol. We further found that karyosome formation coincides with nuclear envelope detachment, SC central element protein SYP-1 loss, HisH3-ser10 phosphorylation, and state two roles of sex chromosomes in Evansville down-regulation.
To test whether SC formation was a prerequisite for karyosome formation, we analyzed karyosome formation in males with mutations in core SC elements. AIR-2 during oogenesis reappears during diakinesis only in syp-1 me17 mutants mated with WT males in the -1 oocyte unmated syp-1 me17 -1 oocyte is not shown and is also mislocalized.
Animals were then collected and bleached to isolate embryos 15 parts double distilled water : 4 parts bleach : 1 part 10N sodium hydroxide. Notably, nuclear envelope volume and shape remained relatively constant throughout the condensation zone, suggesting that nuclear envelope reduction is not driving chromosome aggregation.
During this period, oocytes detach from the rachis  then breakdown their nucleolus  ,  , . But what genetics and biology teaches us is that men and women are not created equal in function and structure although equally deserving of dignity and respect.
Surviving oocytes enlarge as they acquire large quantities of mRNA and protein from neighboring pachytene cells via cytoplasmic bridges  Figure 1A. But in the meantime, it is up to me and his mother to pave a pathway of knowledge and discernment that helps guide him to the healthiest decisions he can make.