Retrieved October 5, Kraemer Sipuel v. Like Loving and Zablocki, these precedents show the Equal Protection Clause can help to identify and correct inequalities in the institution of marriage, vindicating precepts of liberty and equality under the Constitution.
It has to do with U. When the American Psychiatric Association published the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders inhomosexuality was classified as a mental disorder, a position adhered to until Alabama West Coast Hotel v. Justice Anthony Kennedy, seen as a pivotal swing vote in the case, wrote the majority opinion.
Baird, the Court invoked both principles to invalidate a prohibition on the distribution of contraceptives to unmarried persons but not married persons. Johnson Reed v. Supreme Court ruled in a decision that same-sex couples, no matter where they live, have the same right to marry as opposite-sex couples.
Even when a greater awareness of the humanity and integrity of homosexual persons came in the period after World War II, the argument that gays and lesbians had a just claim to dignity was in conflict with both law and widespread social conventions.
Snyder , Obergefell v. Hogan United States v.